Monday, May 25, 2020
Reproductive Ethics Ã¢â¬â Terminations Terminations have always been an ethical issue within healthcare as a lot of people feel that it is morally wrong to end a life and feel that terminating a pregnancy is morally wrong euthanasia of a child. However, there are lots of reasons why a woman would want to terminate, such as rape or unplanned pregnancy. This essay will look at the ethical issues from both sides of the argument as well as how this topic is linked to legislation within the UK. The Equality Act 2010 states everyone has the same chances to do what they can. Some people may need extra help to get the same chances (Munro, S. 2010). Equality Act 2010 means that no matter what your ethnicity, sexuality, gender reassignment, disability or anyone protected under the 7 characteristics, everyone should be treated fairly (Munro, S. 2010). When it comes to healthcare practice, everyone should be given the same consultations, medical treatment and opportunity s as everyone else and no one should be discriminated against or judged. This is fundamental to ensuring that the healthcare professionals work towards eliminating discrimination and reducing inequalities in care. The NHS has clear principles about equality and fairness that is set out in the NHS Constitution, and the laws under the Equality Act 2010 reinforce these (NHS 2014). Should an individual need medical treatment or social care, they have the right to be treated fairly on their needs, not by who they are .Show MoreRelatedA Code Of Ethics : Responsibility And Accountability Standards753 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshighlights the responsibility and accountability standards of each and every employee within the organization. These codes are also motivating factors that guide the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior, set the standard regarding ethical conduct, and build an organizations trustworthiness within their surroundings (McShane Gilnow, 2012). The role of ethics in organizational behavior can negatively or positively impact an entire healthcare entity. If employees are educated on the importance of practicing ethically atRead MoreEthical Issues Of The Healthcare Essay756 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEthical Systems in Healthcare Ethical Issues in Healthcare Ã¢â¬Å"If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have integrity, you have nothing. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy it. You can have all the money in the world, but if you are not a moral and ethical person, you really have nothingÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬âHenry Kravis - The American healthcare system delivers some of the finest care in the world. However, despite the high level of achievement delivered from the American healthcare system, it is afflicted with problems. Ethical issues that occur in the healthcareRead MoreThe Ethics Of Healthcare Management Essay1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe articles that I have chosen deal with the ethics of healthcare management which involves malpractice and dispute resolution. The articles will show different few and in-depth information about the ethics/ morals one should have. Also give a more detailed overview of healthcare management; what the career details about. Issues in Leadership Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership has been described as the behavior of an individual when directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. The key aspects of the leadershipRead MoreSelf Assessment1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfrom self-assessment in relation to individual decision making. This research paper will examine reveal the lesions learned from self assessment. We will observe of the influence of the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) as a guiding force in setting ethical standards in the healthcare industry. This will lead us to discuss how our individual ethics influence our decision making. Lastly, a formulated strategy on enhancing future decision-making will be explained. Self-assessments ofRead MoreCase Study : Partners Healthcare Systems1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Study: Partners HealthCare Systems Angela Cisco, Talia Green, Amy Mc Kinnon Glun, Morgan Rodenbaugh, and Marla Bernal Baker College Online Case Study: Partners HealthCare Systems Partners HealthCare is a non-profit, health system located in Boston that created a data based transformation (Davenport, 2013). It integrated a new system that aligned the participating organizations to cohesively run as one and to help shape the future of the organization. The system didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop there as it was responsibleRead MoreResidential Schools : Residential School System Setup For Aboriginal Children Essay1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschildren died at residential schools due to maltreatment (FNHA, n.d., para. 22; UBC, 2004, para. 1-3). After exploring and analyzing the literature and understanding the history which affects the issue at hand, it is possible to view this issue through historical, political, social, cultural and ethical lens to better understand the situation as it is today. Colonialist policies were put in place, which segregated and marginalized AP which affected the dominant culture views as to what behaviours/attitudesRead MoreEthical Dilemmas in Healthcare1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE HEALTHCARE SETTING Ethical Dilemmas in Healthcare Harold Ben Harris Jr. Trident University International BHS365 - Ethics in the Healthcare Setting (Mod 1 - SLP) Charles Spach November 3rd, 2012 Abstract Session Long Project: The goal of the Session Long Project is to identify and evaluate the ethical principles used in resolving ethical dilemmas, and to apply the principles to specific ethical issues that may haveRead MoreTechnology Is The Most Useful Servant But Dangerous Master Essay1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeneficial factors within society, it also has consequential factors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the darkside of using technology, especially in terms of privacy concerns, in addition, to legal and ethical issues within the healthcare field. First, this paper will address legal and regulatory standards (i.e. Ã¢â¬â¹HIPAA) with the workplace. Then, this paper will address a particular scenario that showcases the darkside of using technology, and give recommendations on how to counter issues similar toRead MoreBusiness Practices Of The West Houston Medical Center Organization847 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommunity, not to mention in order to ensure a successful business. Ethical values can have a focal point on organizational concerns which assist the company in adhere to respectable practices within their establishment or corporation. I am part of the West Houston Medical Center organization, and the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement states: Ã¢â¬Å"We are a family of dedicated Healthcare professionals committed to providing exceptional healthcare and service by exceeding the expectations of every patient, everyRead MoreChallenges Facing The Health Care Industry1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages and providers are faced with under the new ACA reform. This research briefly analyze the causes of health care cost increased, the shortage of healthcare workforce related to demographic changes of aging population and professional providers responsibilities to practice within the code of ethics. A solution is recommended to each challenge in healthcare with suggestion of more research needed to improve quality care performance, avoid workers shortage crisis and strategy to decrease health care
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Looking at the environment today, one can easily say that the goodness of the environment is deteriorating due to the lack of concern and care. However, many dont realise that most of the environmental problems that we have today such as erosion and forest depletion is actually the after math of environmental disasters that happened years ago. When examining the environmental problems of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the statement Ã¢â¬Å"cause and effectÃ¢â¬ , plays a very significant role in explaining the relationship between humans of that time and the effects that had placed on the environment around them. In many cases, the effects of their cause were very threatening to the environment. By looking back and what the Greeks and Romans hadÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hughes states that after Ã¢â¬Å"the trees had been cut down around Philippi, the waters dried up and the weather became warmer. Such impacts were no doubt most serious in marginal areas such as the edges of the S ahara and Arabian desertsÃ¢â¬ (Donald Hughes 85). The third major concern is malaria and other illnesses. Although this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a primary result of deforestation, it is still considered to be a significant one. Due to less tress and more marshes, mosquitoes increased dramatically. Therefore malaria had dramatically spread as well because mosquitoes were the carriers. Ã¢â¬Å"The Romans periodically embarked on ambitious programs for the draining of marshlands, destroying wildlife habitat as they did soÃ¢â¬ (Donald Hughes 65). The fourth and final concern is effects on the economy. Since wood was a vital resource for the ancient Greeks and Romans, deforestation had increased the price of wood and Ã¢â¬Å"lumber became rarer and had to be imported over longer distancesÃ¢â¬ (Donald Hughes 85). Therefore Ã¢â¬Å"the shortage and high cost of building timber due to deforestation contributed to the shift from wood to stone constructionÃ¢â¬ (Donald Hughes 86). During the ti me of the ancient Greeks and Romans, it is acceptable to understand that at that time there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough knowledge to maintain a balance with the environment, hence the Greeks and Romans had failed. Ã¢â¬Å"There are four factors thatShow MoreRelatedThe Roman Medicine991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessana in corpore sanoÃ¢â¬ (Juvenal 10.356). A healthy mind in a healthy body, the Ancient Romans lived by this motto. The Ancient Romans believed that the health of the people was key to success in war and in creating a prosperous empire. Roman texts that have been gathered overtime have greatly influenced modern medical practices and without them, modern medicine would not be as advanced as it is today. The Ancient Romans learned numerous details about the human body and applied their knowledge in waysRead MoreAncient Greek And Romes Impact On Western Literature1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The impact greek and roman culture had on western civilization The ancient Greeks and Romans were two of the greatest civilizations of the ancient world. The two civilizations thrived in their ancient environments which eventually led to a large amount of wealth within these two cultures. It is because of this that these ancient cultures were able to make a variety of advancements in literature, architecture, art and many other fields. These two civilizations also produced some of the ancient worldÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Roman And Greek Civilization940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestoilet to modern roads and concrete, both the Roman and Greek civilization terraformed the world and our homes. Both civilizations also introduced a wider variety of religion, mathematics, science, art and architecture concepts, machinery, military technology and strategy, astronomy, agriculture, philosophy, education, literature, politics, and much more that everyone cling onto throughout a day-to-day basis. To be open-minded, the Romans and Greeks technique invented the smart phone or perhaps theRead MoreThree Basic Theories of Art Criticism1097 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesContextualists, on the other hand, value the theme and its relevance to the times in which the artwork was created. The contextual theories deal with the context in which an art piece is used; what it symbolizes concerning the culture and values of the environment. Lastly, there are the expressive theories. Expressionists are more concerned with the artist and the personal expression put into the work. Also, because art is a method of communication, expressive theories hold importance in the practice of critiquingRead MoreThe Fullness of Time1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesby Paul in Galatians, Ã¢â¬Å"When the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son.Ã¢â¬ The religious preparations for the advent of the Messiah and the subsequent rapid emergence of Christianity were brought about politically by the Romans and intellectually by the Greeks, while the religious contribution of the Jews was more intimate because of heredity. Ã¢â¬Å"In the period of ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s birth and during the first three centuries of its existence, conditions were more favorable for its spread throughRead More Augustan Poetry Essay830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPropertius, and Ovid created epic masterpieces of literature and philosophy. It was through the collective efforts of these great poets and writers as well as Augustus himself, that the rise of a new facet of Roman literature was possible. Seeing the opportunity to foster a great rebirth of Roman culture (specifically literature), Augustus and his closest advisor Maecenas created a situation advantageous for the great writers of the time to write (for the government) and profit from their skills. AugustusRead MoreSimilarities Between Roman And Roman Cinema1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNumerous influences established Roman theatrical entertainment. Etruscan and Greek antecedent are what predominantly shaped ancient Roman entertainment. Etruscans were people who lived in modern day Tuscany and parts of Umbria (Beacham, 1991). Rome inherited all attributes of the Etruscan religious festivals, where various theatrical performances were given, ranging from acting to chariot racing. For instance these carnival-like festivals occurred to please the gods though theatrical offerings. AnotherRead MoreWilliam W. Cape Jr.1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesways, practices, and ideals, but was ultimately started by the Ancient Greeks and adopted by the later Romans. Robert W. Cape Jr. not only explores the connection between the two, but also analyzes Cicero, an ancient Roman, and his ideology that suggested orators being the best qualified to write and present history correctly, both singularly and through the use of rhetoric. The article Cape published, Ã¢â¬Å"Persuasive History: Roman Rhetoric and HistoriographyÃ¢â¬ , analyzes CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument of entrustingRead MoreHamlet, Prince of Denmark825 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages William Shakespeare 1.1. Brief Introduction to Tragedy: Greek and English: Elizabethan tragedy is traced back to Greek tragedy, since Greeks are said to have pioneered the Western knowledge, be it Science, Arts, or HumanitiesÃ¢â¬ânot necessarily Technology. The rich contribution of Greek dramatists like Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus and Aristophanes, is noteworthy, towards the development of both Roman and English Drama. Though Roman Drama could not thrive much as to invite the attention of WesternRead MoreBuilding Concrete Structures Of Building Solid Stone Buildings1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesscreen, a row of ornamental columns in front of a load-bearing wall. For smaller buildings, concrete s strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment. Most of these developments are described by Vitruvius writing in the first century AD in his work De Architectura. Ancient Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortar, sand with stone rubble, pozzolana, water, and stones, and stronger than previously-used concrete. The ancient builders placed these ingredients
Thursday, May 14, 2020
As the Civil War came to a conclusion, there were a lot of problems facing the nation, especially the South. Land in the South was in ruins. Homeless refugees, both African-American and white needed food, shelter, and work. Americans were forced to reach down deep and overcome a lot of adversity to bring the North and South together as one. President Lincoln wanted to make it easy for the southern states to rejoin the Union. His goal was to close up wounds of war as quickly as possible. In December 1863, President Lincoln introduced a model for reinstatement of the Southern states called the Ten Percent Plan. This proposed a plan that if ten percent of a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States, the voters couldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦President Lincoln and the other Republicans hoped that they would see a strong Republican Party in the south. Lincoln thought that his more laid back, softer and more lenient policy would win the support of some influe ntial southern supporters. The Radical Republicans, who were supporters of strict policy in the south, disagreed with the President. They made the case that their strict plan would keep the people that led the South into secession from regaining power and weakening the control of the Radical Republicans. It was important to deal urgently with the needs of the freedmen, as well as the other war refugees. In March of 1865, Congress created the FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau. Providing emergency relief to the people displaced by the war was their first priority. The FreedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureaus also set up schools to teach the freedmen to read and write. Due to the want and need for education, many African American communities then set up their own schools. They would come together and gather up any extra money to pay the teachers. According to some sources, the schools were strict like military schools, and were often so poor that most of the testing came in the oral form. (civilwar.org) Many of the teachers were northern white women, but for the most part, they were African American women. With public education now an option for African Americans, they were given the same rights toward education as the white children were. The Bureau helped extend the education
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When initially looking at the arguments of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke in Leviathan and Second Treatise of Government, they seem to agree on many things. Both philosophers believe that human reasoning is based on appetites and aversions, that humans have a fundamental right to self-preservation, and, above all, that a strong central government is the way to remedy the problems with the state of nature. However, after looking closely, many important differences become apparent. All differences between the arguments of Hobbes and Locke, in regards to human nature and the formation of a social contract, stem from two crucial points: the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ value of individualism and sociality, both in the state of nature and in civil society, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Both Hobbes and Locke observe the overwhelming presence of fear in the state of nature. Even though a person has the right to self-defense and the punishment of evildoers, that does not eliminate the constant fear of being attacked in the state of nature. This is a reason why, according to both philosophers, people are willing to be governed (Hobbes, 1968: 188; Locke, 1980: 16). However, in HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ form of government, that fear is not eliminated, only changed. Instead of fearing death or attack, now the people fear the sovereign itself (Hobbes, 1968: 198). In fact, the entire power of the sovereign comes directly from the fear it instills in those it governs. In exchange for this perpetual fear, the governed can live in peace, so long as they follow the sovereignÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and do not speak out against him (377). LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s government, however, is based much more heavily on trust. This is evident because firstly, citizens retain their individual property; secondly, the citizens have the right to change the government if they are dissatisfied; and lastly, that each citizen must, either tacitly or explicitly, consent to being a part of that government (Locke, 1980: 65). In LockeÃ¢â ¬â¢s civil society, everyone has the right to their life, liberty, and estate. If the government threatens to violate any of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to property, that person has the right to renounce consent and move to a different society, or to rebel against the current one and effect change.
Transferable Skills in Workplace Introduction As a student, it never too soon to look at the job market in which you will be operating as a job seeker, and at what can help you to maximize the chance of having a profitable job. To be attractive to the employer is that students have to acquire during the school time. Nowadays, there have been many researches on employability, which is generally regarded as a broader concept of skills in the workplace. According to the definition given by the Higher Education Academy, employability is: A set of achievements-skills, understandings and personal attributes - that makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations, which benefits themselves, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦People with transferable skills could quickly fit in the new job, get along with a new team and be effective as soon as possible. Despite the basic transferable skills, companies and organisations intend to recruit people with more specialised skills. For example, some consumer goods manufacturers only focus on their core work in order to keep a proper size of employees. They outsourced non-core work and recruit people who is better at communication, presentation and data interpretation etc. As the organisations are changing their recruitment strategy, both basic and specialised transferable skills should be taught in the university. Next, two transferable skills will be elaborated and illustrated separately. Team-working skills Part one: Importance of Teamwork Team-working skills could be required for any jobs. According to the research of www.careernotes.ca, here are top 10 transferable skills: s Communication Skills s Teamwork Skills s Time Management Skills s Problem-Solving Skills s Organisation Skills s Learning Skills s Computer Skills s Listening Skills s Creativity Skills s Leadership Skills Apparently, teamwork has been considered as an essential skill in the workplace. People combine their individual talents in pursuit of companies tasks and missions. However, teamwork in the workplace not only improves the efficiency of business, but also benefits every group member. According to Bob Kellys words in website called globalpost, teamwork in organisationShow MoreRelatedEssay On Applying For A Job776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhy you should be hired for the position you applied for. A resume should consist of where you had volunteered or played a sport, what transferable skills you could deliver to the workplace and why you think you should be hired. Volunteering and extracurricular activities are what makes an employer think that youÃ¢â¬â¢re an active person in society and in a workplace. Acquiring volunteer and extracurricular experience will make you stand out amongst other applicants. Having a degree is not always enoughRead MoreEvaluation Of A Research Study1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhen assigning the projects. The survey included a relevance scale from 1-7, 1 being extremely irrelevant and 7 being extremely relevant, subsequently the participants were asked as to why they rated the sample assignment the way they did and how the skills may benefit their future employability. Procedure The seminar leaders gave the students a survey link and a time frame of a week to complete the online survey. The online survey was broken into four sections, the first sectionÃ¢â¬â¢s data was used toRead MoreWhat Employers Are Looking for in Employees Essay examples1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNow a day employers look for many skills in workers. There are many reasons why worker are not get a job or they are getting fired, but there is one reason why that is happening. That reason is that many employers need people with good skills, qualities and attributes. There are many workers out there, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the skills that are need in the current workforce. Well that is going to change and there the career and work counsellor come in. Ã¢â¬Å"For years, employers have been aware of employee engagementRead MoreCareer Plan For A Career Development Plan1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesseek better skills that lead to top jobs and positions. This plan includes sections for the following process: 1. Assess my current state. Identify goals and objectives. How to measure my objectives? and how my plan affect work/life balance? What trends in the workplace, economy, and marketplace do I need to be aware of that could influence my plan? 2. Examine the critical skills and competencies required to achieve success. What transferable skills do I have and how can these skills be leveragedRead MoreCommunication And Nonverbal Communication749 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageseffectively as a transferable skill that many do not appreciate today. Instead it is assumed that communication is being able to speak or write efficiently as well as effectively. This is not true. The word communication gets thrown around on a regular basis to deliver the illusion that it is only sent communication. The fact is communication is not only sending the message, but also receiving the message. Personally, I feel that nonverbal communication is my strongest transferable skills that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreLearning ( Pbl ) And Work Based Learning1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindustry demands dynamic, adaptable and innovative workers to remain competitive. This presents a challenge to educational institutions on two fronts. Firstly to keep pace with this requirement and secondly to equip their learners with the required skills and knowledge that will enable them to either remain within this environment or to enter it. Two approaches to learning that benefit individuals and meet this challenge are Problem based learning (PBL) and work based learning (WBL). Both approachesRead MoreImportance Of Purpose To Become A Major In Economics893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe main reasons for selecting this program is because of the large selection of majors, possibility of being in the cooperative education program, and simultaneous development of business knowledge and skills. This ultimately allows me to pursue my passion while obtaining valuable transferable skills and knowledge. After viewing the extensive list of possible majors that interested me, I decided to pursue a major in Honours Economic. This was my initial choice because I had always admired the variousRead More The training and development of employees in William Hill is imperative1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesit is needed also to develop them to create further opportunities within the organisation because employees are likely to be better educated and become multi-skilled. Training should be ongoing within William Hill in developing the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills within the business. William Hill believes training is very essential for their company especially when it proves for employees to develop within the organisation and continuing to meet objective. The training and development of employees in WilliamRead MoreWhat Are Ten Ways We Can Build Support For The Humanities?975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCulture Corps of retirees and others to share their humanities and sociology aptitude with children. What are some transferable skills that you may develop by pursuing an education in the humanities? Some transferable skills that I will develop education for individuals is to work together a a team, time management, and to communicate with others. Everywhere you go in a workplace managing your time is a great way to teach individuals that are in currently in school. When in classes, you manageRead MoreEssay on Key Aspects of Training and Development1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinvolves helping an individual to realise his or her potential. This concerns general growth, and is not related specifically to the employees existing post. The term training means the gaining of a particular set of knowledge and skills, which can be applied to a particular job. Training programmes: most large organisations have their own or employee training officers to run training programmes for employees. They usually have a personnel or human resources staff administering
Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal and therefore secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair advantage.  It is an agreement among firms or individuals to divide a market, set prices, limit production or limit opportunities. Ã It can involve wage fixing, kickbacks, or misrepresenting the independence of the relationship between the colluding parties. In legal terms, all acts affected by collusion are considered void. In the study of economics and market competition, collusion takes place within an industry when rival companies cooperate for their mutual benefit. Collusion most often takes place within the market structure of oligopoly, where the decision of a few firms to collude can significantly impact the market as a whole. Cartels are a special case of explicit collusion. Collusion which is not overt, on the other hand, is known as tacit collusion. How is OPEC a collusive oligopoly? OPEC is a collection of oil exporting countries. Oligopoly Industry that is controlled by a few major players (firms or countries) Collusion When industry leaders secretly agree to limit quantities of production. This will guarantee the colluders a higher price for their product OPEC meet to discuss the quantity of oil they will allow onto the world market. This is collusion. Because the OPEC members are the main suppliers of oil they are said to be an Collusion and Cartels by David A. Mayer One of the blessings of competition is that it leads to lower prices for consumers. For the producer, however, this blessing is a curse. Low prices often mean low profits. Given a choice between competition and cooperation, profit-maximizing firms would more often than not prefer cooperation. Regardless of what you learned in kindergarten, you do not want the businesses you buy from to cooperate. You want them to compete. Adam Smith, the father of modern capitalism, warned that nothing beneficial comes from the heads of business getting together. In the United States, firms are forbidden from cooperating to set prices or production. The abuses of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century trusts were the impetus for the Ã¢â¬Å"trust-bustingÃ¢â¬ of President Theodore Roosevelt. With the Sherman Antitrust Act and later the Clayton Antitrust Act, the government prohibited outright collusion and other business practices that reduced competition. Prior to OPEC, world oil prices were mainly under the control of the Texas Railroad Commission. With the rise of OPEC came a shift in power from U. S. producers to the oil states of the Middle East. Even though it violates the law, businesses from time to time will collude in order to set prices. Colluding firms can divide up the market in a way that is beneficial for them. The firms avoid competition, set higher prices, and reduce their operating costs. Because collusion is illegal and punishable by fine and prison, executives at firms are reluctant to engage in the practice. The meetings of business leaders are almost always in the presence of attorneys in order to avoid the accusation of collusion. Forming Cartels Businesses that collude may form cartels. A cartel is a group of businesses that effectively function as a single producer or monopoly able to charge whatever price the market will bear. Probably the best-known modern cartel is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC. OPEC is made up of thirteen oil-exporting countries and is thus not subject to the antitrust laws of the United States. OPEC seeks to maintain high oil prices and profits for their members by restricting output. Each member of the cartel agrees to a production quota that will eventually reduce overall output and increase prices. OPEC is bad news for anyone that enjoys cheap gasoline. Fortunately for consumers, cartels have an Achilles heel. The individual members of a cartel have an incentive to cheat on their agreement. Cartels go through periods of cooperation and competition. When prices and profits are low, the members of the cartel have an incentive to cooperate and limit production. It is the cartels success that brings the incentive to cheat. If the cartel is successful, the market price of the commodity will rise. Individual members driven by their own self-interest will have an incentive, the law of supply, to ever-so-slightly exceed their production quota and sell the excess at the now higher price. The problem is that all members have this incentive and the result is that eventually prices will fall as they collectively cheat on the production quota. Cartels must find ways to discourage cheating. Drug cartels use assassination and kidnapping, but OPEC uses something a little more civilized. The single largest producer in the cartel is Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia also has the lowest cost of production. If a member or members cheat on the cartel, then Saudi Arabia can discipline the group by unleashing its vast oil reserves, undercutting other countries prices, and still remain profitable. After a few months or even years of losses, the other countries would then have an incentive to cooperate and limit production once again. * Definition: OPEC stands for The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. It is an organization of 12 oil-producing countries that effectively control the worlds oil. OPEC members pump out 42% of the worlds annual supply, controlling 61% of exports. This situation isnt likely to change, since these 12 countries hold 80% of the worlds proven oil reserves. For these reasons, OPECs decisions are critical to countries that depend on oil imports. What Does OPEC Do? OPEC states quite plainly that its goal is to manage the worlds supply of oil. It does this to make sure its members get what they consider a good price for their oil. Since oil is a fairly uniform commodity, most of its consumers base their buying decisions on nothing other than price. Whats a good price? In the past, OPEC said it was around $70-$80 per barrel. If prices drop below that target, OPEC members agree to restrict supply to send prices higher. Otherwise, they would wind up increasing the supply to make more national revenue. By competing with each other, they would drive prices even lower. This would stimulate even more demand, and OPEC countries will run out of their most precious resource that much faster. When prices are higher than $80 a barrel, oil-producing countries would naturally want to produce more to bring in extra national revenue. However, if they did that, they increase supply, lowering the price. Instead, OPEC members agree to produce only enough to keep the price high for all members. Furthermore, if prices are too much higher than $80 a barrel, then other countries have the incentive to drill more expensive oil fields. Sure enough, now that oil prices are closer to $100 a barrel, its become cost effective for Canada to explore its shale oil fields, and for the U. S. to use fracking. As a result, non-OPEC supply has increased. OPECs second goal is to reduce oil price volatility. Thats because, at current prices and rates of production, OPEC countries have enough oil to last for 113 years. In addition, oil is expensive to produce. For maximum efficiency, oil extraction must run 24 hours a day, seven days a week. In addition, closing facilities could physically damage oil installations and even the fields themselves. Ocean drilling is especially difficult and expensive to shut down. Therefore, its in OPECs best interests to keep world prices stable. For example, in June 2008, prices spiked to $143/barrel. OPEC responded by agreeing to produce a little more oil, which brought prices down. However, the global financial crisis brought oil prices down to $33. 73/barrel in December. OPEC responded by reducing the supply, helping prices to again stabilize. A slight modification is usually enough to restore price stability. OPEC also adjusts the worlds oil supply in response to crises and shortages. For example, it replaced the oil lost during the Gulf Crisis in 1990. Several million barrels of oil per day were cut off when Saddam Hussein armies destroyed refineries in Kuwait. OPEC alos increased production in 2011 during the crisis in Libya. The Oil and Energy Ministers from the OPEC members meet twice a year, or more if needed, to coordinate their oil production policies. Each member country abides by an honor system, agreeing to only produce a certain amount. However, if a country winds up producing more, there really is no sanction or penalty. Furthermore, each country is responsible for reporting its own production. Therefore, there is room for cheating. On the other hand, a country wont go too far over its quota, since it doesnt want to risk being kicked out of OPEC. Despite its power, OPEC cannot completely control the price of oil. In some countries, additional taxes are imposed on gasoline and other oil-based end products to promote conservation. More importantly, oil prices are actually set by the oil futures market. Much of the oil price is determined by these commodities traders. For more on this, see Why Are Oil Prices So High?
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The Minor Characters In Romeo And Juliet Have A Great Deal Of Essay Influence Of The Destinies Of The Major CharactersRomeo and Juliet is a play based on love, fate, change andtragedy. It tracks the story of two lovers from opposing familiesancient feud, in death. Like most stories, the major charactersplay an important role, such as the decisions in which they take. Yet the minor characters also have a good deal of influence overthe ultimate destinies of Romeo and Juliet. The first minor character to be mentioned should be Tybalt. He wasa butter enemy of Romeo, and had he not been `slain, Romeo wouldnever had been banished. In Act 3, Scene 1, Tybalt kills Mercutiowhen Romeo attempts to come between the combatants and averts thefight. Out of blind rage, Romeo kills Tybalt. And in my tmepersoftend valours see! Had Romeo not decided to exact revenge onTybalt, perhaps the Capulets might have accepted him as a son. This would mean that Romeo and Juliet would not have had to hidetheir love for each other. Tybalt, indeed, had a large effect onthe lives of Romeo and Juliet, by killing Mercutio. Another minor character thought to have shaped the destinies ofRomeo and Juliet is Paris. In Act 3, Scene 5, Lady Capuletannounces that Juliet is to marry Paris. The County Paris, atSaint Peters church, Shall happily make thee there a joyfulbride. Juliet obviously refuses and goes to Friar Laurence forhelp. Friar Laurence devises a plan, which will prevent themarriage and reunite Romeo with Juliet. However, this plan goeshorribly wrong, perhaps causing the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. IfParis had not wished to be with Juliet, none of the followingwould have occurred. Friar Laurence gives a letter to Friar John to send to Romeo aboutJuliets plans. But Friar John was unable to find Romeo. Nor geta messenger to bring it thee, So fearful were they of infection. This is another example of a minor character playing an importantrole. Balthasar brings Romeo the news of Juliets `death. Romeo thengoes to Juliets tomb and lays with her that night. He looks foran apothecary to sell him some poison, and succeeds. Had theapothecary refused to sell him the poison, Romeo might have beendelayed, giving Friar Laurence time to find him and tell him thetruth. The above paragraphs are simply speculation on what might or mightnot have happened, but it does help explain the view that theminor characters helped shape the destiny of Romeo and Juliet. Perhaps their deaths could not be prevented. Maybe Romeo andJuliet were `pawns in a game to end their families ancient feud. It is possible that a higher force was at work here fate. Onething is known for certain, there has never been a story of morewoe than this of Juliet and her Romeo.